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Interview by Alessandro Ludovico. January, 2002.


Alessandro Ludovico: The 'error', or the casual and recurring machine's stop or
malfunctioning, is so familiar to the user that constitutes a sort of independent and temporary dimension. Does it also have a language of its own and 'grammar rules'?

Lev Manovich: What I said above about signal and noise obviously applies here as well. In addition, the frequent and inevitable errors, along with constant updates of software and hardware, along with structural incompatibility of various protocols, software standards and hardware all represent the true reality of Information society. Instead of a utopian world where all beings and all objects can effortlessly communicate with each other (which is the picture you often get in ads about technology) we leave in a mess! And given the constant competition between different companies there is no reason to assume that it will ever get any better.

2002  Interview